Timeline
 
 
1791-1809: Youth & Education
 
1791
Mar. 4 - Vermont becomes the 14th state in the Union.
  Apr. 23 - James Buchanan is born in Cove Gap, PA to James Buchanan and Elizabeth Speer Buchanan.
   
Apr. 26 - The Cherokee Indians cede the majority of their land to the US in the Treaty of Holston.
   
Nov. 26 - George Washington conducts the first cabinet meeting.
           
1792     Feb. 21 - Congress passes the Presidential Succession Act.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his first birthday.  
    May 17 - The New York Stock Exchange is organized.
      June 1 - Kentucky becomes the 15th state in the Union.
      Oct. 12 - The first celebration of Columbus Day is held in New York on the 300th anniversary of Columbus’s discovery.
      Dec. 5 - George Washington is reelected president of the US.
       
1793   Jane Buchanan (sister of James Buchanan) is born.  
      Feb. 12 - Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act, allowing a slave-owner to recover a runaway.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his second birthday.  
      July 22 - Canadian explorer Alexander MacKenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean, completing the first continental crossing.
      Aug. 2 - The US asks the Government of France to recall its minister, Citizen Genet, who is compromising American neutrality in the war between France and England.
       
1794   James Buchanan's father purchases the Dunwoodie Farm, near Mercersburg, PA.  
      Mar. 14 - Eli Whitney of Mulberry Grove, Georgia, is awarded a patent for his cotton gin.
      Mar. 22 - Congress passes a bill banning slave trade with other nations.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his third birthday.  
       
1795   Maria Buchanan (sister of James Buchanan) is born.  
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his fourth birthday.  
      Aug. 3 - The Indians cede two thirds of Ohio and part of Indiana to the US in the Treaty of Greenville.
 
1796   James Buchanan's father relocates his family to Mercersburg, PA; John Speer (uncle of James Buchanan) temporarily takes charge of the family's mercantile business in Cove Gap, PA.  
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his fifth birthday.  
      June 1 - Tennessee becomes the 16th state in the Union.
      Oct. 29 - Captain Ebenezer Dorr, aboard the Otter, becomes the first American to explore the California coast.
 
1797   Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his sixth birthday.  
       
1798   James Buchanan's father moves his mercantile business to Mercersburg, PA.  
    Sarah Buchanan (sister of James Buchanan) is born.  
      Apr. 7 - Congress establishes the Mississippi Territory from land ceded from Spain.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his seventh birthday.  
      May 28 - John Adams orders American warships to seize French ships interfering with American shipping.
      June 6 - Congress passes a bill abolishing debtors’ prisons in the US.
      July 4 - Congress enacts the first tariff bill, putting protective duties on several commodities.
 
1799     Jan. 30 - Congress passes the Logan Act, making it illegal for a private citizen to conduct negotiations with a foreign government.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his eighth birthday.  
      Nov. 10 - Napoleon Bonaparte becomes first consul of France.
      Dec. 14 - Alexander Hamilton presents a plan for a Bank of the US to Congress.
      Dec. 14 - George Washington dies at his home in Mount Vernon, Virginia.
 
1800   Elizabeth Buchanan (sister of James Buchanan) is born; she dies within a year.  
      Apr. 4 - Congress passes the first Federal Bankruptcy Act, applying to merchants and traders.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his ninth birthday.  
      Apr. 24 - The Library of Congress is founded in Washington, DC when John Adams approves an appropriation of $5,000 for the purchase of books.
      Sep. 30 - The Convention of 1800 restores normal diplomatic relations between France and the US.
      Oct. 1 - France and Spain sign the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso, in which Spain returns the Louisiana Territory to France.
      Nov. 17 - The first congress to sit in Washington, DC convenes.
 
1801     Jan. 20 - John Marshall is appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
      Feb. 17 - Presidential candidate Thomas Jefferson wins the support of a majority of congressional representatives, displacing the incumbent John Adams.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his tenth birthday.  
      May 14 - The Tripolitan War begins with the Pasha of Tripoli’s soldiers cutting down the flagpole at the US Consulate.
 
1802   Harriet Buchanan (sister of James Buchanan) is born.  
      Jan. 29 - John Beckley becomes the first librarian of the Library of Congress.
      Feb. 6 - Congress empowers Thomas Jefferson to arm US ships in order to protect themselves against Tripolitan pirates.
      Mar. 16 - Congress approves legislation establishing the US Military Academy at West Point, one of the oldest military service academies in the world.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his eleventh birthday.  
      Apr. 30 - Congress passes the Enabling Act, authorizing territories organized under the Northwest Ordinance to prepare for statehood.
 
1803     Feb. 19 - Ohio becomes the 17th state in the Union.
      Feb. 24 - The Supreme Court rules an act of Congress null and void if it conflicts with the US Constitution.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his twelfth birthday.  
      Apr. 30 - The US acquires from France 828,000 square miles of land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, in the Louisiana Purchase.
      Oct. 20 - The US Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase Treaty by a vote of twenty-four to seven.
 
1804   John Buchanan (brother of James Buchanan) is born; he dies within the year.  
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his thirteenth birthday.  
      May 14 - The Lewis and Clark expedition leaves St. Louis to explore the new territory acquired by the Louisiana Purchase.
      May 18 - Napoleon Bonaparte becomes emperor of France.
      July 7 - Aaron Burr fatally shoots Alexander Hamilton in a duel in Weehawken, New Jersey.
 
1805   William Speer Buchanan (brother of James Buchanan) is born.  
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his fourteenth birthday.  
      June 4 - A peace treaty is signed ending the Tripolitan War, with Tripoli agreeing to stop menacing US shipping.
      Nov. 8 - The Lewis and Clark expedition reaches the Pacific Ocean.
 
1806   Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his fifteenth birthday.  
      June 5 - A race horse named Yankee becomes the first trotter to break the three minute mile.
      Nov. 15 - The Literary Cabinet, published at Yale University, becomes the first college magazine.
      Nov. 15 - American explorer Zebulon Pike discovers Pike’s Peak in present-day Colorado.
 
1807   Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his sixteenth birthday.  
      Aug. 11 - Robert Fulton’s steamboat, Clermont, makes its first run on the Hudson River, from New York to Albany.
    Nov. - James Buchanan enters the junior class of Dickinson College, after preparing for college at the Old Stone Academy in Mercersburg, PA.  
 
1808   George Washington Buchanan (brother of James Buchanan) is born.  
      Apr. 6 - John Jacob Astor establishes the American Fur Company.
      Apr. 17 - Napoleon Bonaparte orders the French seizure of American shipping.
    Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his seventeenth birthday.  
    Sep. - James Buchanan is expelled from Dickinson College, but permitted to return after pledging good behavior to his parents' minister and college trustee, Dr. John King.
 
      Nov. 10 - The Osage Indians sign the Osage Treaty with the US, ceding all of their land in present-day Missouri and Arkansas.
 
1809   Apr. 23 - James Buchanan celebrates his eighteenth birthday.  
      June 10 - The Phoenix becomes the first steamboat to navigate in the open sea, making a 13-day voyage from Philadelphia to New York.
    Sep. 19 - James Buchanan graduates from Dickinson College.  
    Dec. - James Buchanan goes to Lancaster, PA to study law with James Hopkins; he lives in the Widow Duchman's Inn on East King Street.