Italians have played a major role in the history of immigration to Argentina since the original boom at the end of the 19th century up until the middle of the 20th century. They have constituted the majority of the immigrants coming into Argentina. A strong network has been established amongst the Italian immigrants, which has encouraged and made it possible for their countrymen to join them. Argentina itself was a welcoming option due to the availability of jobs and social mobility along with the similar language and culture. An example of this is Comodoro Rivadavia, on the coast of central Patagonia, which offered abundant jobs in its oil companies and a growing Italian community. The main immigration period that is usually focused upon is from 1880 until 1914 when World War I began, but immigration did not stop there. The Italians continued immigrating and another large group came to Argentina after World War II hoping to escape the aftermath of the war. Amongst these new immigrants were Giuseppe Cambereri and Supina Lopresto who came to live in Comodoro Rivadavia. Italian immigration to Argentina maintains similar aspects throughout its history with exceptions in specific cases and that extends past the boom period into the 20th century, and into cities besides the capital of Buenos Aires, which has both positive and negative effects on the immigrants.
The Italians that immigrated to Argentina during the time period from 1880-1914 represented all the regions of Italy with 46% from the south, 42% from the north, and 12% from the center of the country. (1) Most of the northern Italians went to work on the land while the southerners stayed in the cities to work in the factories. The southerners arrived in Argentina later than the other Italian immigrants did and most of the land for agriculture was already taken.
There was a steady flow of immigrants into Argentina, the majority of whom were males ranging in age from fourteen to fifty. For every Italian woman in Argentina there were two men. The immigrants found it easy to adjust to the new society and, in turn, their host society adapted well to them. When the immigrants arrived in Argentina, most of them remained in the large cities in order to build strength in numbers and to establish community and lifestyle. The majority of the Italians who came decided to permanently settle in Argentina although there were some who decided to either return home permanently or alternate between the two countries. The intent of many in the beginning was to only travel to Argentina temporarily, but the majority later made the decision not to return. They decided to make a new life in Argentina by building places for education, establishing homes, and creating institutions for their new communities.
The occurrence of Italian immigration rests on several reasons. First of all, Argentine agriculture was an attractive option to the Italians because they could work the harvest in Argentina during the European winter. These are the workers who are referred to as golondrinas because they migrated according to the weather like swallows. Another reason is the capitalist system, which underwent major development and began to encourage exchanges of technology, capital, and laborers between the nations that lined the Atlantic seaboard. In the political sector were the motives of the Argentine elites, who saw immigration as a means of aiding in the modernization and civilizing of their country since European society was seen as more sophisticated.
The Federal Government became involved in the immigration process through the Constitution of 1853. Article 25 of the Constitution stated the government’s desire to promote immigration. Article 20 served as an incentive to the immigrants because it gave them the same rights as Argentine citizens, while also allowing for the obtainment of citizenship if they chose to do so. In 1876, the Law of Immigration and Colonization was created to improve upon the previous laws that had been created in order to prompt the immigrants to join in the cultivation of the interior. Italians were desirable because they could provide labor, work skills, and knowledge of economic development while also contributing their skills as farmers, artisans, industrial workers, and businessmen. Also important was that the Italian and Argentine elites shared similar ideas in that they both wanted to build new nations based on liberal ideas.
As for the immigrants’ motive for migrating, many decided to leave Italy because of the rapid population growth. The economy of the country was unable to absorb this number of inhabitants due to the fact that it did not grow as fast as the population did. The rural inhabitants are the ones who suffered because of their reliance on the agriculture that they produced. This system failed when crops and land ownership became unpredictable. Another reason for migration to Argentina is networks of family, relatives, and paesani (fellow countrymen) who became important in finding places to settle and work. These people could provide information, advice, and assistance for the journey to Argentina along with potential jobs and places to live once they had arrived. Family members were also an excellent source for financial assistance. Other sources of help were agents who helped those without any connections, with the most important being the businessmen and professionals who worked for the railroad and steamship companies. Earning money was another main reasons for migration to Argentina. The immigrants used some of the money that they earned to send back to Italy in order to support family members or to allow them to buy tickets to the New World. Some actually went to Argentina to make their fortunes and then return to live in Italy.
Italian immigrants felt at home in Argentina due to the similarities of their cultures, one of the most important being language. The Italian and Spanish languages share similar traits, especially in their vocabulary. Italians adjusted easily to Argentine society because the Argentines placed strong emphasis on the family and relations with others just as the Italians did. Italians also constituted a large part of the population and in turn had a large effect on society.
Most of the Italians started out as manual laborers due to their qualifications in that area. They were rewarded for this through good pay, stable jobs and the possibility for promotion. Italians aided in the creation of the working class in Argentina because their work skills allowed them to move up in society. This led to the creation of the working and middle class, which were situated, between the previous two social categories, the elites and the non-elites.
The Italians tended to live within groups that consisted of people from their original villages or provinces in Italy. The lives of the immigrants revolved around the neighborhoods where they lived, worked, and shopped in. Services such as doctors and lawyers were available to the people along with schools, churches, and mutual aid societies. The businesses that they patronized were those of people they were related to, friends with, or had come to trust on a business level. Some local storekeepers provided services such as selling steamship tickets and sending money and writing letters to relatives in Italy.
Italians in Patagonia: Immigration Beyond Buenos Aires and 1914
The situation in Comodoro Rivadavia pertaining to the Italian immigrants was basically the same as in the rest of Argentina. The Italians came to Argentina for a variety of reasons, some of which had prompted the earlier immigration of Italians to Argentina, but there were also new reasons such as the petroleum industry. Argentina offered a language and culture that was similar to the Italians. They could receive a higher salary along with better education and health benefits than in Italy. The economy and social situations in the European countries after the World Wars were not in the best condition. There was also the possibility of social mobility for the Italians, which was not possible at home. They were attracted to the job market, which included working in the growing petroleum industry. The petroleum companies that settled in Comodoro Rivadavia after the initial discovery of oil in the area in 1907 offered flexible occupations and salaries that allow for new places in the social structure. The political situation in Italy had been unstable during the nineteenth century due to the process of unification of the country. Previously, Italy had been divided into three regions with the north being ruled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the west by the royal house of Savoy, and the south by the Vatican. Some Italians were forced to leave due to political reasons, with only a small amount being expelled or forced to flee due to religious persecution.
As was the case with the earlier Italian immigrants, there are two main groups that the Italian immigrants were divided into, being the north and the south. From 1870 until 1900 the majority of the Italians came from the northern regions of Liguria, Lombardy, and the Piemonte. Later immigrants from the southern regions came in 1886 from Campania and in 1900 from Sicily. (2) Many of these southern Italians came from the province of Calabria. They worked mainly in agriculture growing grain, grapes, and olives, but also as shepherds and coal miners. Those from the north had more advantages from having worked in the industries and this knowledge gave them more power. The immigrants from the south were often illiterate and poor due to the jobs they worked in the agrarian sector.
Like other Italian immigrants many of the immigrants who came to Comodoro Rivadavia arrived with the intention of returning to Italy. However, there were many that changed their minds after arriving in Argentina and later sent for their families. Some even took leave from work without pay in order to return to Italy to retrieve their spouse and family. The immigrants relied upon personal relations with people from their own towns and provinces as their social network.
The arrival of the Italian immigrants to Comodoro Rivadavia began in 1907 with the discovery of petroleum. They saw Argentina as an opportunity where they could temporarily go to work and earn money. Usually only one member of the family would immigrate and work to either create or increase an inheritance. Work also provided the opportunity to improve one’s status since social mobility was a possibility. The workers found they could move either upwards or downwards in their occupations in Argentina.
In 1917 Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF), the state oil company, had 38 Italian workers which comprised 2.71% of their total work force. (3) They worked a variety of jobs including unskilled laborer, brick mason, foreman, carpenter, mechanic, etc. The Italians tended to choose jobs that they had previously performed in Italy. The majority of these workers came into the company during strikes with most of them only remaining a maximum of three years. The majority of this group returned to Italy after the end of World War I. This group had mainly consisted of Italian immigrants who were single men that were no older than 30 years old. The company housed the immigrants in metal huts with two or three other company workers. The few who were married received their own house from YPF. By 1926 there were 196 Italian laborers who composed 5.7% of the total work force. (4) It was this wave of immigrants who brought their families with them when they originally immigrated.
The Italian immigrants composed a large amount of the community of Comodoro Rivadavia. They contributed 64 of the 959 members of the Padrones Electorales, local voters’ registries, in 1917. (5) They totaled 29% of the urban middle class working as professionals, merchants, small business owners, and administrative employees. This class itself was a result of the social mobility created by the petroleum companies where the Italians worked. In the working class the Italian laborers totaled 64% of both the skilled and unskilled workers. (6) By 1920 the Italians had become the third most important immigrant group in Comodoro after the Spanish and the Argentines.
The Italians grew in population over the years to become one of the majority immigrants groups. Italian immigration only slowed during World War I while immigration from other European nations came to a halt. In 1920 a new wave hit only to be stopped in 1929 by the Great Depression. Beginning in 1932 only relatives of those already residing in Argentina were allowed to enter the country. The only other group permitted entrance by the Argentine government were those willing to work in the rural parts of the country, such as the region of Sarmiento, located 200 km west of Comodoro Rivadavia. There the Italian immigrants worked in the numerous jobs available on the ranches such as sheep shearers, shepherds, livestock, agriculture, stablemen and so on.
On October 26, 1919 the Italian Mutual Aid Association in Comodoro Rivadavia came into existence. It originally consisted of 150 members with only a few of these members being from the YPF and Astra oil companies –the later was one of the several private oil companies in the area . The workers at the companies had no need for the association since they were already provided with social services. During World War II the Association was split into two sections due to the new idea of fascism. In the company town of Kilometro 3 (YPF) the Italian Democratic Society was formed and in the city of Comodoro Rivadavia proper was the Italian Association. After the war ended the two sectors reunited in 1946.
The principal objective of the Italian Mutual Aid Association was to promote the well being of the immigrants. It served to address questions that arose over religion and politics while also providing a social network and a venue for cultural events for its participants. The Association purchased a building to serve as a headquarters for its own use and also for use by its members. Those who belonged to the Association were either Italian citizens or the children of Italians. The members represented 45% of the middle class and 30% working class. (7) The Association was maintained through fees paid by its members and, in turn, it provided medical assistance and workers’ compensation. An Italian Hospital was also established for the exclusive use of the Association members.
After the end of World War II a total of 500,000 Italians came to Argentina. Between 1947-50, 50% of the immigrants were between the ages of 22 and 40. Starting in 1951 the amount dropped to between 30-40% for this age group. (8) These immigrants were predominantly male between the years 1945-50 with a large wave of women arriving in 1954. Of the Italians who arrived during the years of 1945-60, 74% settled in Buenos Aires or its suburbs. Of those 500,000 immigrants 68% originated in the southern half of the country, with 29% of this number being from the province of Calabria. (9) Other popular provinces of post-World War II immigration were Campania, Abruzzo-Molise, and Sicily. The immigrants from Europe that immigrated after World War II were trying to escape the devastation caused by the war. Many countries were undergoing economic crisis and political disruption due to the end of the war. The United States had also dropped ties that it had formerly maintained with European nations who possessed potential immigrants. Argentina, on the other hand, accepted both refugees and displaced persons from the war.
One of the most important reasons was the tie established with the Italians immigrants already living there. Argentina had become a reputable destination for the Italian immigrants where they knew they would be welcomed and could find a large Italian community. Italians still used networking and paesani to establish themselves in the new country. They Italians relied on the previous immigrants as a base for their community. They secluded themselves within this community of Italians both socially and politically. At the same time they continued to maintain their relations with Italy in hopes that they would soon return.
The Italian government experienced a large amount of pressure after World War II. The country had been partially destroyed by the activities of the war. There was a high unemployment rate followed by the beginnings of problems in the political and social sectors and instability in the economy. Many wanted to escape the rules of fascism that had been imposed upon them during the war. There was also a popular fear concerning the start of another war. Others desired to immigrate because they desired to either reunite with their families or had become dissatisfied with their life in Italy. Immigration became Italy’s escape valve and so few restrictions were posed and this option was openly encouraged.
Argentina prepared for the influx of immigrants with the Plan de Gobierno created by the Peronist goverment for the years 1947-51, when official criteria for immigration were established. In 1946-47 two groups were created, one being the Delegación Argentina de Inmigrantes en Europa (DAIE) and the other was the Comisión de Recepción y Encauzamiento de Inmigración (CREI). The DAIE was established in Rome to receive requests from potential immigrants. This agency would then select and notify the applicants. CREI’s main objective was to present opportunities in the Argentine job market to the perspective immigrants. The Italian government aided its emigrants by facilitating the working conditions of the Italian workers so that they would be equal with the Argentines. In 1948 a document was created stating the benefits that the Italian immigrants would receive, which included paid passage, cover of initial expenses upon arrival, and the opportunity for specialized professions.
Peron’s government created plans for the large amount of Italian immigrants in 1947 known as the Primer Plan Quinquenal. These immigrants were in turn attracted by the offerings made by Peron’s government. The Argentine government planned for 250,000 to immigrate over a period of five years with 50,000 immigrants arriving each year. The purpose was to industrialize and modernize Argentina through the substitution of imports. Political immigration was encouraged in order to aid in Peron’s plan for developing the state.
In 1948 Argentina and Italy developed a treaty that dealt with the conditions of immigration. The Italian government worked to ensure that the workers who emigrated to Argentina would be safely transported to their destinations. They provided training and offered courses to the immigrants for specialized occupations. Living and working conditions along with the paying of workers were inspected to ensure fair treatment of the immigrants. In turn, the Argentine government facilitated those immigrants coming to visit, reunite with families, or develop the labor sector.
Italians who were involved in agriculture found themselves at home in Argentina since it was this occupational group of workers that had the smallest rate of return to Italy. Some Italians chose other occupations and went into fields such as manufacturing and construction instead. After the war companies that had been originated in Italy began to be established in Argentina. Besides contributing businesses, Italy also provided Argentina with technicians, scientists and artists of all skill levels.
By the mid-1950’s the flow of Italian immigrants into Argentina had come to a halt. The amount of Italians returning to Italy had increased due to a variety of factors. Some had a difficult time in adjusting to a foreign culture. This is often a result of the Italians secluding themselves from the outside community and associating only with other Italians. Many of the new wave Italian immigrants had not bothered to integrate with the rest of the community because they had their own patrons.
Post-War War II Italian Immigration to Comodoro Rivadavia: Two Life-Histories
Among the immigrants who came during the post World War II period were Giuseppe Cambereri and Supina Lopresto. Both of them emigrated from the province of Calabria to Comodoro Rivadavia. In spite of their similar regional origin, they are from different generations and have different perspectives on what it is to be an immigrant. Giuseppe arrived a few years before Pina and came of his own free will. Pina was forced to immigrate due her father’s decision to do so and was unhappy as an immigrant. It is interesting to compare and contrast their personal experiences with immigration in the context of the general knowledge of Italian immigration during this time period discussed above. They shared their experiences in oral histories interviews conducted during Dickinson College’s Patagonia Mosaic, in January of 2001. (10)
Giuseppe Cambereri arrived in Argentina in 1949, when he was 36 years old, after he had finished fighting in World War II. He was born on March 23, 1916 in the province of Calabria. He was the youngest of his family with three sisters and four brothers ahead of him. His family lived on a farm, but his father worked other jobs at the same time. His father’s main occupation was a brick mason and he taught this trade to Giuseppe. He only attended school until the fourth grade and then at the age of 12 he began to work with his father. Giuseppe’s father died when he was 16 years old and at that point he took on the responsibility of working and maintaining the family.
He entered into the military at the age of 17 to serve for a brief period before taking a break. In 1937 he was called back into the service to fight in the upcoming war. Giuseppe finished fighting in the war in September of 1943. He traveled back to his home in Calabria from his station in northern Italy in the Alps in fear. He would not even speak for fear that the Germans would find and capture him. Social conditions were still shaky from the war and strong feelings of anti-Semitism were still present.
He returned from the war to his wife and family in Calabria and began his old life again. The war had created fear and restlessness in him and he desired to escape it and its memories. Giuseppe’s decision to go to Argentina was influenced by these factors along with his desire to escape post-war Italy. The war left behind death and destruction while also creating personal feuding and labor strikes. He wanted to escape war altogether while experiencing something different. His desire for new experiences was a result of the changes war had made upon him. He wanted different work and to continue his father’s legacy of masonry in another part of the world.
When his oldest sister, Carmela, who had immigrated to Argentina in 1917 with her husband, became a widow he was called upon to go Argentina in order to help her out. Giuseppe had high hopes because his sister also told him that she was doing well with her life in Argentina. His sister had to send documents calling him to Argentina in order for him to emigrate. Upon his arrival, Giuseppe lived in Kilometro 5 (also known as Barrio Presidente Ortíz) in a rented house, while his sister continued to live in a YPF company house.
Carmela’s husband had worked for YPF for seven years before he died. After he passed away the company hired Carmela to clean bathrooms and do laundry in order for her to support her family. YPF granted Carmela a pension for the 11 years she worked for them plus the 6 for the time her husband worked. When Giuseppe arrived he used this family connection with his sister to obtain a job for himself as a contractor for the company. He obtained his materials from YPF, but did the work on his own. He mainly constructed houses in the barrios, especially in Kilometro 3 (also known as General Mosconi). One of his most important projects was building the Eva Perón School.
While still in the service, Giuseppe had married his wife. When Giuseppe first came to Argentina in 1949 he left behind his pregnant wife and two sons. It was not until 1954 that he sent for his family, which then consisted of the two boys, both 9 and 7 years old, and his daughter Giuseppina, who was 5. Like his sister he also had to send documents requesting for his family to come to Argentina. Their journey from Italy to Buenos Aires took 16 days by boat. It was then another three days by boat for them to go from Buenos Aires to Comodoro Rivadavia.
Ties among Italians were very strong in Giuseppe’s experience. His knowledge of the Italian language helped him build connections with other Italians in Comodoro Rivadavia. He had learned the national dialect during his time in the service, which helped him communicate with the other Italians in Comodoro. For example the Minister of Education was Italian and it was he who gave the school construction job to Giuseppe. The Minister of Education also sold Giuseppe the land for his sister’s house after the company house was taken away from her. Giuseppe supervised a group of 40 Italians who helped him in his construction business. The immigrant network was very important in establishing oneself since new immigrants looked for old immigrants as a support system.
Giuseppe became involved in the Italian Mutual Aid Association from the beginning of his life in Argentina. He attended meetings, dances, and gave presentations. The Association held many festivities celebrating Italian festivals. One of his fondest memories was of the dances where he could dance the Italian folk dance from Calabria, the tarantella.
Pina Lopresto arrived in Argentina in 1953 when she was 12 years old along with her 14 years old brother. Pina was born in Calabria, Italy on February 13, 1941. Her father was away for most of her childhood fighting in World War II and Pina’s mother was left to care for them. After the war he had been detained as a prisoner and he did not come back into her life until 1948 when she was 7 years old.
Pina’s father had come to Argentina one year after his return from the war to visit his parents in Buenos Aires who had immigrated 40 years earlier. Even though he was only visiting he had to obtain an immigrant visa. He spent one year in Buenos Aires before leaving with his friend who had family in Comodoro Rivadavia. He had not been happy in Buenos Aires and was also pursuing of a lover, who he never met up with again. He then decided to remain in Comodoro where he lived with a couple who were the relatives of his friend.
When her father first arrived in Comodoro there were few inhabitants and little “civilization.” Pina’s father did encounter a number of other Italians who also hailed from Calabria. Pina’s father became an associate with a woman who owned a dry cleaner. He worked and survived on his own without any aid from either the Argentine or Italian governments.
The couple with whom Pina’s father lived convinced him to send for his children to come visit. Pina and her brother joined their father in 1953 while their mother remained in Italy for another year in order to finalize the renting of their home while they were gone. It was a long journey for Pina and her brother to come to Argentina from Italy. First they had to travel from Calabria to the city of Genova. Then it took 16 days for them to travel by boat to Argentina. For 10 days they waited to continue with their journey. Meanwhile they stayed with their uncle in Buenos Aires in the neighborhood of La Boca where a large Italian immigrant population lived. It took another 3 days for them to travel by boat to Comodoro Rivadavia. Her mother followed them a year later.
Pina found herself caring for her father and brother once she arrived in Argentina. She had to cook, do laundry and buy the groceries. Pina learned Spanish mainly from working in the dry cleaners. She was supposed to attend a Catholic girl’s school, but disliked the attention she received because she was a foreigner. Instead she worked the counter in the store and practiced with the customers along with the other girls who worked there. She also found it helpful to read magazines.
Pina did not like Patagonia or Comodoro and described it as being hell due to the lack of “civilization” and activity. Unfortunately, Pina and her family could not return to Italy because of the arrangements they had made to rent their house. In Pina’s opinion one should stay in their own country despite how bad conditions may be. She points out how the conditions in Italy began to improve in the years after the war. She believes that there is too much suffering in immigrating. People start with nothing and must put forth a lot of hard work in order to survive. Pina wished to return to Italy along with her husband, but decided against it once they had three children. She did not want to put them through the unhappiness that she had experienced. It was also difficult to return because of the decrease in status. Italians had gained a certain social and economical status in Argentina and when they returned to Italy they would be worse off.
Both of these immigrant stories help to support previous information while presenting new evidence from a personal perspective. Both immigrants came from the southern, agricultural part of Italy like so many others. Their families left Europe in hopes of finding a new life away from the destruction of war. They share similar stories dealing with transportation, networking, the close Italian community, details of immigration, etc. The difference lies in the people themselves due to their ability and desire to adapt to their new surroundings. Giuseppe considers himself to be Argentine because Argentina is the country that allowed him to escape from the war. He has lived in Argentina for 50 years and it is there that he found a good job, where his family lives and where his life is. In contrast, despite the 36 years that Pina has lived in Argentina, she considers herself to be Italian and not Argentine especially since she still retains her citizenship in Italy. Nevertheless she continues to live in Argentina because it is her children’s home and she does not want to uproot them from it.
narratives along with the other information provided in this paper demonstrate
the effect of immigration on Italians outside of Buenos Aires and after
the 1880-1914 boom period in immigration. The Italians journeyed to Argentina
because of the job opportunities it offered along with the possibilities
for social mobility. Argentina also offered a similar language and culture,
which led to a large population of Italian immigrants. This would be an
important factor later on with networking and also in the establishment
of tight Italian communities. In the case of Comodoro Rivadavia, immigrants
came to reap the benefits offered by the petroleum industry and to enjoy
the strong Italian community. Comodoro and its job market also provided
an alternative to the city of Buenos Aires, which not all of the immigrants
took a liking to. There are many different situations of immigration depending
on the time period, destination, job opportunities and so for. Immigration
was not for everyone though, as can be seen in the case of Supina Lopresto.
On the other hand, it was useful for those trying to escape the effects
of the war, as was the case for Giuseppe Cambereri. Italian immigration
into Argentina covers a wide array of places, people, and time periods
that all share basic similarities, but are unique in each situation.
1. Samuel L. Baily, Immigrants in the Lands of Promise: Italians in Buenos Aires and New York City, 1870-1914 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999), 26. This book is the main source for the profile of Italian immigration in Argentina presented in this paper.
2. Graciela Ciselli, Los Italianos en el Sureste del Chubut: Su inserción socio-económica (1901-1944) (Comodoro Rivadavia: Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, 1995), 35.
3. Graciela Ciselli, Los italianos en el sureste del Chubut, 70.
4. Graciela Ciselli, Los italianos en el sureste del Chubut, 75.
5. Graciela Ciselli, Los italianos en el sureste del Chubut, 91.
6. Graciela Ciselli, Los italianos en el sureste del Chubut, 92-93.
7. Graciela Ciselli, Los Italianos en el Sureste del Chubut, 109.
8. Aldo Albónico and Gianfusto Rosoli, Italia y América (Madrid: Fundación MAPFRE América, 1994), 305.
9. Aldo Albónico and Gianfusto Rosoli, Italia y América, 338.
Cambereri. Interview by Graciela Ciselli, Lisa Fiorentino, and Jasmin Sánchez.
Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina. 18 January 2001; Supina Lopresto.
Interview by Graciela Ciselli, Lisa Fiorentino, and María José
Garrido. Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina. 19 January 2001.
Cambereri, Giuseppe. Interview by Graciela Ciselli, Lisa Fiorentino, and Jasmin Sánchez. Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina. 18 January 2001. Patagonia Mosaic 2001, Community Studies Center, Dickinson College.
Supina. Interview by Graciela Ciselli, Lisa Fiorentino, and María
José Garrido. Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina. 19 January 2001. Patagonia
Mosaic 2001, Community Studies Center, Dickinson College.
Albónico, Aldo and Gianfusto Rosoli. Italia y América. Madrid: Fundación MAPFRE América, 1994.
Argiroffo, Beatriz E. and Claudia A. Etcharry. “Inmigración, redes sociales, y movilidad ocupacional: italianos de Ginestra y Ripalimosani en Rosario (1947-1958),” Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, 21 (August 1992), pp. 345-370.
Asociación Italiana de Socorros Mutuos. Cincuentario de Comodoro Rivadavia. February 1951.
Baily, Samuel L. “Hacer la América: Los italianos ganan dinero en Buenos Aires y New York, 1880-1914.” Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, 38 (April 1998), pp. 57-67.
- - - Immigrants in the Lands of Promise: Italians in Buenos Aires and New York City, 1870-1914. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
- - - “Patrones de residencia de los italianos en Buenos Aires y Nueva York: 1880-1914,” Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, 1 (December 1985), pp. 8-47.
Barbero, María Inés and María Cristina Cacopardo, “La inmigración europea a la Argentina en la segunda posguerra: viejos mitos y nuevas condiciones,” Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, 19 (December 1991), pp. 291-321.
Ciselli, Graciela. Los Italianos en el Sureste del Chubut: Su inserción socio-económica (1901-1944). Comodoro Rivadavia: Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, 1995.
Favero, Luis V. “Mechanisms of Adaptation and Integration of Italian Immigrants in Argentina: From Social Spaces to the Interpretative Paradigms of Ethnic Identity,” in The Columbus People. Eds. Lydio F. Tomasi et al. New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1994, pp. 113-124.
Nugent, Walter. Crossings: The Great Transatlantic Migrations, 1870-1914. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
Olivieri, Mabel. “Un siglo de legislación en materia de inmigración Italia-Argentina, 1860-1960.” Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, 6-7 (August-December 1987), pp. 225-248.
Senkman, Leonardo. “Política internacional e inmigración europea en la Argentina de postguerra (1945-1948): El caso de los refugiados,” Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, 1 (December 1985), pp. 107-125.
(This section is under construction.)
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